Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Indigenous to Peru and a Flavonoid on Growth, Yield, and Leaf Elemental Concentration of 'Yungay' Potatoes.

by Fred T. Davies Jr., Constantino M. Calderon, and Zosimo Huaman

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) [two Peruvian mixed isolates, a pure isolate of Glomus intraradices] and the flavonoid, formononetin, were tested on growth, yield, and leaf elemental concentration of the Peruvian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) 'Yungay'. Plant started from tissue culture-produced prenuclear minitubers of 'Yungay' were subjected to seven treatments, which included noncolonized (non-AMF) plants fertilized with Long Ashton nutrient solution modified to supply P at 11 and 44 ug*mL-1. All AMF plants received low P (11 ug*mL-1) and were inoculated with either a sierra-maize mixed isolate, sierra-papa mixed isolate, pure isolate of G. intraradices, sierra-maize mixed isolate _ dormononetin, or a sierra-papa mixed isolate + formononetin. Plants were grown in 3-L containers under shade house conditions in Lima, Peru. Non-AMF plants at low P had the poorest growth, while high P plants had the greatest overall growth. All AMF plants had greater growth, including a higher root to shoot ratio, higher phosphorus use efficiency [(g tuber)/(g P/kg tissue)], and a lower leaf to tuber ratio (indicating greater leaf efficiency in producing tuber dry matter), compared to non-AMF plants at low P. The mycorrhizal inoculation effect (MIE) ranged from +44% to +57%, indicating that 'Yungay' was moderately to highly mycorrhizal dependent. Plants colonized witih the sierra-papa isolate + formononetin had the same tuber development and leaf to tuber ratio, compared to high P, non-AMF plants. Formononetin increased extraradical hyphae formation. Mycorrhizal enhancement was in part due to greater P, Fe, and Mg uptake, a higher phosphorus-use efficiency and greater extraradical hyphae formation.

HortScience., Vol. 40(2), pp. 381-385, 2005.